# Changes between Version 4 and Version 5 of TracEnvironment

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Timestamp:
01/14/19 00:01:55 (2 years ago)
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 v4 = The Trac Environment = = The Trac Environment Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the “environment”. [[TracGuideToc]] [[PageOutline(2-5,Contents,pullout)]] == Creating an Environment == Trac uses a directory structure and a database for storing project data. The directory is referred to as the '''environment'''. A new Trac environment is created using  [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]: {{{ == Creating an Environment A new Trac environment is created using [TracAdmin#initenv trac-admin's initenv]: {{{#!sh $trac-admin /path/to/myproject initenv }}} trac-admin will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string (explained below). trac-admin will ask you for the name of the project and the database connection string, see below. === Some Useful Tips - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation. === Useful Tips - Place your environment's directory on a filesystem which supports sub-second timestamps, as Trac monitors the timestamp of its configuration files and changes happening on a filesystem with too coarse-grained timestamp resolution may go undetected in Trac < 1.0.2. This is also true for the location of authentication files when using TracStandalone. - The user under which the web server runs will require file system write permission to the environment directory and all the files inside. Please remember to set the appropriate permissions. The same applies to the source code repository, although the user under which Trac runs will only require write access to a Subversion repository created with the BDB file system; for other repository types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation. - initenv, when using an svn repository, does not imply that trac-admin will perform svnadmin create for the specified repository path. You need to perform the svnadmin create prior to trac-admin initenv if you're creating a new svn repository altogether with a new trac environment, otherwise you will see a message "Warning: couldn't index the repository" when initializing the environment. - initenv does not create a version control repository for the specified path. If you wish to specify a default repository using optional the arguments to initenv you must create the repository first, otherwise you will see a message when initializing the environment: //Warning: couldn't index the default repository//. - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported - Also, it seems that project names with spaces can be problematic for authentication (see [trac:#7163]). - Non-ascii environment paths are not supported. - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment] before being able to use it. - TracPlugins located in a [TracIni#inherit-section shared plugins folder] that is defined in an [TracIni#GlobalConfiguration inherited configuration] are currently not loaded during creation, and hence, if they need to create extra tables for example, you'll need to [TracUpgrade#UpgradetheTracEnvironment upgrade the environment]. == Database Connection Strings == {{{#!div style="border: 1pt dotted; margin: 1em" **Caveat:** don't confuse the //Trac environment directory// with the //source code repository directory//. Since version 0.9, Trac supports both [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite] and [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] database backends. Preliminary support for [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] was added in 0.10. The default is to use SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment. This is a common beginners' mistake. It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place. }}} === SQLite Connection String === == Database Connection Strings Trac supports [http://sqlite.org/ SQLite], [http://www.postgresql.org/ PostgreSQL] and [http://mysql.com/ MySQL] database backends. The default is SQLite, which is probably sufficient for most projects. The database file is then stored in the environment directory, and can easily be [wiki:TracBackup backed up] together with the rest of the environment. Note that if the username or password of the connection string (if applicable) contains the :, / or @ characters, they need to be URL encoded. === SQLite Connection String The connection string for an SQLite database is: {{{ where db/trac.db is the path to the database file within the Trac environment. === PostgreSQL Connection String === If you want to use PostgreSQL or MySQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called trac, that allows access to the user johndoe with the password letmein, use: === PostgreSQL Connection String If you want to use PostgreSQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a PostgreSQL database on the same machine called trac for user johndoe with the password letmein use: {{{ postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost/trac }}} ''Note that due to the way the above string is parsed, the "/" and "@" characters cannot be part of the password.'' If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port (for example 9342), use: If PostgreSQL is running on a non-standard port, for example 9342, use: {{{ postgres://johndoe:letmein@localhost:9342/trac }}} On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable: On UNIX, you might want to select a UNIX socket for the transport, either the default socket as defined by the PGHOST environment variable: {{{ postgres://user:password@/database }}} or a specific one: {{{ }}} Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running trac-admin initenv. Note that with PostgreSQL you will have to create the database before running trac-admin initenv. See the [http://www.postgresql.org/docs/ PostgreSQL documentation] for detailed instructions on how to administer [http://postgresql.org PostgreSQL]. Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named tracuser, and a database named trac. {{{ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac }}} When running createuser you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the -P and -E options from the createuser command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors trac's use of unicode in trac. SQL_ASCII also seems to work. Under some default configurations (debian) one will have run the createuser and createdb scripts as the postgres user. For example: {{{ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser' sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac' Generally, the following is sufficient to create a database user named tracuser and a database named trac: {{{#!sh$ createuser -U postgres -E -P tracuser $createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac }}} Trac uses the public schema by default but you can specify a different schema in the connection string: When running createuser you will be prompted for the password for the user 'tracuser'. This new user will not be a superuser, will not be allowed to create other databases and will not be allowed to create other roles. These privileges are not needed to run a Trac instance. If no password is desired for the user, simply remove the -P and -E options from the createuser command. Also note that the database should be created as UTF8. LATIN1 encoding causes errors, because of Trac's use of unicode. SQL_ASCII also seems to work. Under some default configurations (Debian), run the createuser and createdb scripts as the postgres user: {{{#!sh$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createuser -U postgres -S -D -R -E -P tracuser' \$ sudo su - postgres -c 'createdb -U postgres -O tracuser -E UTF8 trac' }}} Trac uses the public schema by default, but you can specify a different schema in the connection string: {{{ postgres://user:pass@server/database?schema=yourschemaname }}} === MySQL Connection String === === MySQL Connection String If you want to use MySQL instead, you'll have to use a different connection string. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called trac, that allows access to the user johndoe with the password letmein, the mysql connection string is: The format of the MySQL connection string is similar to those for PostgreSQL, with the postgres scheme being replaced by mysql. For example, to connect to a MySQL database on the same machine called trac for user johndoe with password letmein: {{{ mysql://johndoe:letmein@localhost:3306/trac }}} == Source Code Repository == == Source Code Repository Since version 0.12, a single Trac environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository (like type, url, description). Since Trac 0.12, a single environment can be connected to more than one repository. There are many different ways to connect repositories to an environment, see TracRepositoryAdmin. This page also details the various attributes that can be set for a repository, such as type, url, description. In Trac 0.12 trac-admin no longer asks questions related to repositories. Therefore, by default Trac is not connected to any source code repository, and the ''Browse Source'' toolbar item will not be displayed. You can also explicitly disable the trac.versioncontrol.* components (which are otherwise still loaded) {{{ You can also explicitly disable the trac.versioncontrol.* components, which are otherwise still loaded: {{{#!ini [components] trac.versioncontrol.* = disabled }}} For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this; for other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation. For some version control systems, it is possible to specify not only the path to the repository, but also a ''scope'' within the repository. Trac will then only show information related to the files and changesets below that scope. The Subversion backend for Trac supports this. For other types, check the corresponding plugin's documentation. Example of a configuration for a Subversion repository used as the default repository: {{{ {{{#!ini [trac] repository_type = svn The configuration for a scoped Subversion repository would be: {{{ {{{#!ini [trac] repository_type = svn }}} == Directory Structure == == Directory Structure An environment directory will usually consist of the following files and directories: * README - Brief description of the environment. * VERSION - Contains the environment version identifier. * attachments - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets are stored here. * VERSION - Environment version identifier. * files * attachments - Attachments to wiki pages and tickets. * conf * trac.ini - Main configuration file. See TracIni. * trac.ini - Main configuration file. See TracIni. * db * trac.db - The SQLite database (if you're using SQLite). * htdocs - directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using /htdocs/site/... URLs. ''(since 0.11)'' * log - default directory for log files, if logging is turned on and a relative path is given. * plugins - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins] (Python eggs or single file plugins, since [trac:milestone:0.10 0.10]) * templates - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. ''(since 0.11)'' * site.html - method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance === Caveat: don't confuse a ''Trac environment directory'' with the ''source code repository directory'' #Caveat This is a common beginners' mistake. It happens that the structure for a Trac environment is loosely modelled after the Subversion repository directory structure, but those are two disjoint entities and they are not and ''must not'' be located at the same place. * trac.db - The SQLite database, if you are using SQLite. * htdocs - Directory containing web resources, which can be referenced in Genshi templates using /chrome/site/... URLs. * log - Default directory for log files, if file logging is enabled and a relative path is given. * plugins - Environment-specific [wiki:TracPlugins plugins]. * templates - Custom Genshi environment-specific templates. * site.html - Method to customize header, footer, and style, described in TracInterfaceCustomization#SiteAppearance. ----